WHAT A DNS IS AND HOW IT WORKS
Dear readers of Tecnogalaxy, today we will talk about DNS, we will see how it works and its importance.
A DNS is a “Domain Name System” domain name system that translates understandable names such as www.google.com into IP addresses used by computers (e.g., 192.168.2.44).
YOU KNOW WHAT!!!
All devices on the Internet, from our smartphones to laptops to servers… communicate with each other using a numerical string, in technical jargon “IP address”.
When you open a web page and enter a site, if you think about it you don’t have to keep in memory and enter a long numerical string, but you just need to enter the domain name for example www.google.com to open the page.
The Internet DNS system works like a phone book, it manages the mapping between names and numbers (IP addresses).
DNS servers translate name requests into IP addresses by checking which server the end user will connect to when they type a domain name into their browser (for example www.google.com), all of these requests in technical jargon are called queries.
HOW MANY TYPES OF DNS EXIST?
There are two types of DNS one called authoritative DNS and one called recursive DNS.
- Authoritative DNS system: provides an update mechanism that developers can use to manage their public DNS names.
This system responds to DNS queries by translating domain names into IP addresses, so computers can communicate with each other.
Authoritative systems have the highest authority over a domain and are responsible for responding to recursive DNS servers. For example, Amazon Route 53 is an authoritative DNS system.
- Recursive DNS system: Computers usually do not query authoritative DNS services directly, but instead connect with another type of DNS service.
This type of service is called a resolver or recursive DNS service.
This recursive service acts as a doorman of a hotel, it is not the owner of the DNS records, but it is an intermediary where we can get information about the DNS.
If the DNS reference has the DNS reference cached or stored (for a given period of time), the recursive DNS will respond to the query by providing the information or source IP.
Otherwise, it will forward the query to one or more authoritative DNS servers to retrieve the requested information.
But how does a DNS route traffic to a web application?
- A user opens their web browser and types www.site.com in the address bar and presses Enter.
- The request for www.site.com is routed to a DNS resolver that is typically handled by an Internet service provider (ISP), the classic telephony provider that offers cable or DSL connection.
- The DNS resolver for the ISP forwards the request of www.sito.com to a root name DNS server.
- The DNS resolver for the ISP forwards the request of www.sito.com again but this time to one of the top-level name servers for the .com.
The domain name server . com responds to the request with the names of the four name servers such as Amazon Route 53 associated with the domain www.site.com.
- The DNS resolver for the ISP chooses an Amazon Route 53 name server and in turn forwards the request to www.site.com to that server.
- The Amazon Route 53 name server looks for the www.sito.com record in the hosted www.site.com zone, obtaining the associated value, (the IP address of a Web server, 18.104.22.168) returning it to the DNS resolver.
- The DNS resolver for the ISP thus has at its disposal the IP address requested by the initial user.
The resolver returns the value to the user’s web browser , the DNS resolver also caches the IP address of www.site.com for a specified amount of time.
This will allow you to respond faster to the next attempt to connect to www.site.com
- The Web browser sends a request for www.site.com to the IP address obtained by the DNS resolver, in this location you will find the contents for example of a Web server running in an Amazon EC2 instance or in an Amazon S3 bucket configured as a website endpoint.
The Web server located at 22.214.171.124 returns the web page for www.site.com to the Web browser which will then display the page.
Below we can see a list of the most recommended DNS servers that you can use for your internet connection.
Among the best free and obviously fast DNS Google DNS servers are definitely the most used.
To use them you must set the primary server to the address “126.96.36.199.8”, while the secondary address “188.8.131.52”.
The name Secure DNS itself boasts of being one of the best and most secure DNS servers around.
To use them you must set the primary server to the address “184.108.40.206” as the primary server and “220.127.116.11” as the alternative DNS.
Open DNS is perhaps among the most used and known servers, offering good performance and reliability.
To use them you have to set the primary server the address “18.104.22.168”, while at the secondary enter “22.214.171.124”.
These DNS servers offer a good balance between security and speed.
To use them you must set the primary server to the address “126.96.36.199”, while the alternative DNS server is “188.8.131.52”.
Telecom Italia DNS
TIM offers its DNS servers, which are also among the fastest and safest on the web.
To use them you must set the primary server to the address “184.108.40.206”, while the secondary DNS server is “220.127.116.11”.
Fastweb also offers its own DNS servers.
To use them you need to set the primary server to the address “18.104.22.168” as the primary DNS, and “22.214.171.124” as the secondary.
The DNS servers of the company producing the same antivirus, are really safe and fast.
To use them you must set the primary server to the address “126.96.36.199”, while the alternative DNS server is “188.8.131.52”.
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